Contents of Monography

 

1. About the electrocardiogram
2. Morphological abnormalities
3. About arrhythmias in general
4. Specific arrhythmias: diagnosis and treatment
5. Others
6. Other forms of electrocardiography
7. Code-systems
8. Drugs
 
 
1. About the electrocardiogram
1.1. Electrical bases
1.2. The standard 12-leads electrocardiogram
1.2.1. Leads
1.2.1.1. Standard leads
1.2.1.2. Non-standard leads
1.2.2. The P-wave
1.2.3. The P-R_interval_(PR_interval)
1.2.4. The QRS_complex
1.2.5. The ST-segment
1.2.6. The T-wave
1.2.7. The U-wave
1.2.8. The Q-T_interval_(QTi) and QT_dispersion_ (QTd)
2. Morphological abnormalities
2.1. Abnormal P-wave and Ta-segment
2.1.1. Right_atrial_enlargement
2.1.2. Left_atrial_enlargement
2.1.3. Biatrial_enlargement
2.1.4. Atrial disease in the presence of atrial_fibrillation_(AFI)
2.1.5. Alteration of atrial repolarization (Ta-segment)
2.1.5.1. Primary Ta-segment changes
2.1.5.2. Secondary Ta-segment changes
2.2. Ventricular_hypertrophy
2.2.1 Left_ventricular_hypertrophy_(LVH)
2.2.2. Right_ventricular_hypertrophy_(RVH)
2.3. Intraventricular_conduction_defects
2.3.1. Left_bundle_branch_block (LBBB)
2.3.2. Incomplete_LBBB_(iLBBB)
2.3.3. Right_bundle_branch_block_(RBBB)
2.3.4. Incomplete_RBBB_(iRBBB)
2.3.5. Divisional_blocks (= fascicular_blocks)
2.3.5.1. Anterior_fascicular_block (= LAFB)
2.3.5.2. Posterior_fascicular_block (= LPFB)
2.3.6. RBBB_&_divisional_blocks
2.3.6.1. RBBB_&_LAFB
2.3.6.2. RBBB_&_LPFB
2.3.7. Trifascicular_block
2.3.8. Nonspecific_intraventricular_conduction_defect
2.3.9. Masquerading_BBB
2.3.10. Bilateral_BBB
2.3.11. BBB_alternans
2.3.12. Intraventricular_aberration
2.3.12.1. Premature_excitation
2.3.12.2. Ashman_phenomenon
2.3.12.3. Acceleration-dependent-aberration
2.3.12.4. Deceleration-dependent-aberration
2.4. Myocardial_infarction_(AMI)
2.4.1. ECG recognition
2.4.1.1. I. Classic patterns (one-half to two-thirds of the patients)
2.4.1.2. II. Non-classic patterns
2.4.1.3. III. Periinfarction_block
2.4.2. Myocardial_infarction_&_conduction_defects
2.4.3. Infarction localisation (Q-wave)
2.5. ST-segment_elevation_(ST_EL)
2.6. T-wave changes
2.6.1. Primary T-wave changes
2.6.2. Secondary T-wave changes
2.7. U-wave abnormalities
2.8. Long_QT_syndrome_(LQTS)
2.9. Abnormal ECG in absence of clinical heart disease
2.9.1. QRS
2.9.2. ST-segment
2.9.3. T-wave
2.10. Electrolyte abnormalities and the ECG
2.10.1. Hyperkalemia
2.10.2. Hypokalemia
2.10.3. Hypocalcemia
2.10.4. Hypercalcemia
2.11. Low_voltage
3. About arrhythmias in general
3.1.Basic electrophysiological principles
3.1.1. Cell_membrane
3.1.2. Phases of the cardiac action_potential
3.1.3. Normal automacity
3.1.4. Loss of membrane_potential and arrhythmia development
3.2. Mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis
3.2.1. Disorders of impulse formation
3.2.1.1. Automaticity
3.2.1.2. Triggered_activity
3.2.1.3. Parasystole
3.2.2. Disorders of impulse conduction
3.2.2.1. Unidirectional_block_without reentry or bidirectional_block_without reentry
3.2.2.2. Unidirectional_block_with_reentry
3.2.2.3. Reentry_in_general
3.2.2.4. Tachycardias_due_to_reentry
3.2.3. Other forms of conduction_delay or block
3.2.3.1. Deceleration-dependent_block
3.2.3.2. Tachycardia-dependent_block (= Phase_3_block)
3.2.3.3. Decremental_conduction
3.2.4. Proarrhythmia
3.2.5. Other electrophysiological abnormalities leading to cardiac arrhythmias
3.2.5.1. Supernormal_conduction
3.2.5.2. Supernormal_excitation
3.2.5.3. Concealed_conduction
4. Specific arrhythmias: diagnosis and treatment
4.1. Sinus nodal disturbancies
4.1.1. Sinus_tachycardia
4.1.2. Sinus_bradycardia
4.1.3. Sinus_arrhythmia
4.1.4. Sinus_arrest (= sinus_pause)
4.1.5. Sinoatrial_block (= SA_block = Exit_block)
4.1.6. Wandering_pacemaker
4.1.7. Hypertensive_carotid_sinus_syndrome (= HCSS)
4.1.8. Sick_sinus_syndrome_(SSS)
4.1.9. Sinus_nodal_reentry_tachycardia (= SNRT)
4.2. Disturbances of atrial rhythm
4.2.1. Premature_atrial_complex_(PAC=SVES)
4.2.2. Atrial_flutter_(AFL)
4.2.3. Atrial_fibrillation_(AFI)
4.2.4. Atrial_tachycardias
4.3. AV_junctional (AVj)_rhythm_disturbances
4.3.1. AV_junctional_escape_beats_(AVJ_EB)
4.3.2. Premature_AVj_complexes
4.3.3. AV_junctional_rhythm
4.3.4. Nonparoxysmal_AV_junctional_tachycardia
4.3.5. AV_nodal_reentrant_tachycardia_(AVNRT)
4.3.6. Reentry over the retrogradely_conducting (=concealed) accessory pathway
4.3.7. Preexcitation_syndrome
4.3.8. Summary of supraventricular_extrasystoles_(SVES)
4.3.9. Other facts of supraventricular_tachycardias_(SVTs)
4.4. Ventricular_rhythm_dysturbances (= ventricular_arrhythmias_(VARRH)
4.4.1. Premature_ventricular_complexes_(PVCs)
4.4.2. Ventricular_tachycardia_(VT)
4.4.2.1. Ventricular_tachycardia in general
4.4.2.2. Differential_diagnosis of wide_QRS_tachycardia
4.4.2.3. Specific types of ventricular_tachycardia
4.4.2.3.1. Arrhythmogenic_right_ventricular_ dysplasia_(ARVD)
4.4.2.3.2. Tetralogy_of_Fallot
4.4.2.3.3. Cardiomyopathies .
4.4.2.4. Accelerated_idioventricular_rhythm
4.4.2.5. Torsade_de_pointes_(TdP)
4.4.2.6. VT in long_QT_syndrome
4.4.2.7. Bidirectional_VT
4.4.2.8. VT in otherwise healthy young individual
4.4.3. Ventricular_flutter (VFL) and ventricular_fibrillation (VFI)
4.4.4. Malignant_ventricular_arrhythmia_(MVA)
4.4.5. Arrhythmic_cardiac_death_(ACD)
4.5. Heart_blocks
4.5.1. First_degree_AV_block
4.5.2. Second_degree_AV_block
4.5.3. Complete_AV_block
4.5.4. Atrioventricular_dissociation
5. Others
5.1. Pacemakers
5.2. Implantable_cardioverter_defibrillator (= ICD)
5.3. Implantable_atrial_defibrillator_(IAD
5.4. Clinical features and diagnostic methods of syncope
6. Other forms of electrocardiography
6.1. Exercise(stress)_ECG
6.2. Ambulatory(Holter)_ECG
6.3. Signal-averaged_ECG
6.4. Surface-mapping_ECG
6.5. Other ECG-methods
7. Code-systems
7.1. MINNESOTA-CODES (1982)
8. Drugs
8.1. Antiarrhythmic drugs
8.1.1. Class_I
8.1.1.1. Class_Ia
8.1.1.1.1. Quinidine
8.1.1.1.2. Procainamide
8.1.1.1.3. Disopyramide
8.1.1.2. Class_Ib
8.1.1.2.1. Lidocain
8.1.1.2.2. Mexiletine
8.1.1.2.3. Tocainide
8.1.1.2.4. Phenytoin
8.1.1.3. Class_Ic
8.1.1.3.1. Flecainide
8.1.1.3.2. Propafenone
8.1.1.3.2. Moricizine
8.1.2. Class_II.
8.1.3. Class_III.
8.1.3.1. Amiodarone
8.1.3.2. Bretylium tosylate
8.1.3.3. Sotalol
8.1.4. Class_IV.
8.1.4.1. Verapamil
8.1.4.2. Diltiazem